DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY

FACULTY ACTIVITIES REPORT

JULY 1, 1999-JUNE 30, 2000


I. Publications, Performances, Exhibits

 

Anderson, Dave

 

K. P. Huyvaert, D. J. Anderson, T. Jones, W. Duan, and P. Parker.  2000.  Extra-pair fertilizations in waved albatrosses.  Molecular Ecology, in press.

P. Fernández and D. J. Anderson.  2000.  Nocturnal and diurnal foraging activity of Hawaiian albatrosses detected with a new immersion monitor.  Condor. in press.

 

Browne, Carole

 

Silver,W.L.  and C. L. Browne  (in press ) Integration of Laboratory Exercises in Development and Neurobiology Courses Using the Xenopus Oocyte Expression System. J of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology

 

Browne, Robert

 

Wanigasekera, G. and R.A. Browne. 2000. Combined effects of salinity and temperature on survival and reproduction of five species of Artemia as a function of salinity and temperature.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 224:29-44.

Browne, R.A., J.W. LaVoie, and F.A. Bynum. 1999.  Tree and mammal species richness in Piedmont North Carolina 1760-1996, Proceedings of Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Meeting, pp. 28-29.

 

Conner, William

 

Conner, W.E. 1999.  ‘Un Chant D’appel Amoureux’: Acoustic communication in moths.  Journal of Experimental Biology 202:1711-1723.

Weller, S.J., Jacobson, N.L. and W.E. Conner. 1999. The evolution of chemical defenses and mating systems in tiger moths. Biol. J. Linnaean Society. 68: 557-578.

Coro, F., Perez, M., Mora, E., Boada, D., Conner, W.E., Sanderford, M.V. and H. Avila. 1999.  Receptor cell habituation in the A1 auditory receptor of four noctuoid moths. Journal of Experimental Biology 201:2879-2890.

Iyengar, V.K., Rossini, C., Hoebeke, E.R., Conner, W.E., Eisner, T. 1999. First record of the parasitoid Archytas aterrimus (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Entomological News 110(3):144-146.

Simmons, R.B., W.E. Conner, and R.B. Davidson. 1999. Identification of major components of the Euchaetes egle female pheromone blend. Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 52(4):356-363.

Douglas, H. and W.E. Conner. 1999. Is there a sound reception window in coastal environments? Evidence from shorebird communication systems. Naturwissenschaften 86(5):228-230.

Co-curator of “Fusion: Art and Science”. Wake Forest Fine Arts Gallery.  October 8-December 10, 1999.

 

Curran, James

 

One paper, Molecular Mechanisms for Codon Reading within the Ribosome, with Dr. Valery Lim, was submitted to Journal of Molecular Biology and is in review at time of this report (4/27/00)

 

Esch, Gerald

 

Zelmer, D. A. and G. W. Esch. 1999. Robust estimation of parasite component community richness.  Journal of Parasitology 85:  592-595

Barger, M. A. and G. W. Esch.  1999.  Allopodocotyle chilitorum n. sp. From redlip shiners.  Journal of Parasitology 85: 801-893

Esch, G. W. 1999.  Musings of a mentor.  Journal of Parasitology 85: 1008-1010.

Barger, M. A. and G. W. Esch.  2000. Plagioporus sinitsini (Digenea: Opecoelidae):  A one-host life cycle?  Journal of Parasitology 86: 150-152

Zelmer, D. A. and G. W. Esch.  2000.  Relationship between structure and stability of a Halipegus occidualis component population in green frogs:  A test of selective treatment.  Journal of Parasitology 86: 223-240

 

Eure, Herman

 

Introduction and presentation of the ASP’s Outstanding Mentor Award, published in the Society’s Journal, Volume 85, No. 6, December 1999, pp. 1006-1008.

 

Johnson, Dan

 

Jung, F., Johnson, A.D. et al. (1999) Characterization of E-box Dependent cis-Elements in Smooth Muscle Alpha Actin Promoter.  Artenosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 19:2591.

Johnson, A.D. and G.K, Owens. (1999) Activation of SMaA Transcription in SMCs by Binding of USF to E-box Elements. Am. J. Physiol. 275:C608-C618.

 

Kron, Kathleen

 

Kron, K.A., R. Fuller, D.M. Crayn, P.A. Gadek, and C.J. Quinn. 1999.  Phylogenetic relationships of epacrids and vacciniods (Ericaceae s.l.) based on matK sequence data.  Plant Systematics and Evolution 218:55-65.

Kron, K.A., W.S. Judd, and D.M. Crayn. 1999.  Phylogenetic analyses of the Andromedeae (Ericaceae subfam. Vaccinioideae).  American Journal of Botany 86:1290-1300.

Kron, K.A., and M. Creel. 1999.  A new species of azalea (Rhododendron section Pentanthera: Ericaceae) from South Carolina. Novon 9:377-380.

 

Kuhn, Raymond

 

Clark, R.K. and R.E. Kuhn. 1999 Trypanosoma cuzi does not induce apoptosis in murine fibroblasts. Parasitology 118:167-175.

Toenjes, S.A., R.J. Spolski, K.A. Mooney and R.E. Kuhn. 1999. The systemic immune response of BALB/c mice infected with larval Taenia crassiceps is a mixed Th1/Th2 response.  Parasitology 118:623-633.

Toenjes, S.A., R.J. Spolski, K.A.Mooney and R.E. Kuhn. 1999. g d T cells do not play a role in controlling infections in experimental cysticercosis.  Parasitology 119:413-418.

Spolski, R.J., J. Corson, P.G. Thomas and R.E. Kuhn.  Parasite-secreted products regulate the host response to larval Taenia crassiceps. (Parasitology IN PRESS).

Mooney, K.A., R.J. Spolski, E.J. See and R.E. Kuhn. Immune destruction of larval Taenia crassiceps in mice.  (Infection and Immunity IN PRESS).

 

An additional paper is in press with Ginger Fisher and R.V. Dimock.

 

Muday, Gloria

 

Muday, GK (2000) Interactions between the actin cytoskeleton and an auxin transport protein. In: Actin: A Dynamic Framework for Multiple Plant Cell Functions. Eds, CJ Staiger, F Baluska, D Volkmann, P Barlow. Kluwer Academic Press:  Doldrecht:  The Netherlands pp. 541-556

Muday, GK, Hu, S, and Brady, SR (2000) The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein. Gravitational and Space Biology Bulletin. In press

Rashotte, AM, Brady, SR, Reed, RC, Ante, SJ, Muday, GK (2000) Basipetal Auxin Transport Is Required for Gravitropism in Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 122: 481-490

 

Silman, Miles

 

Clark, Silman, Karn, Macklin, Hillerislamisong, 1999.  Ecology 80(5):1475-1494.

Pitman, Terborgh, Silman, Núñez, V. 1999.  Ecology 80(8):2651-2661.

 

Silver, Wayne

 

Major, D.A. and Silver, W.L. (1999) Odorants presented to the rat nasal cavity increase coritcal blood flow.  Chem. Senses 24: 665-669.

Alimohammadi, H. and Silver, W.L. (2000) Evidence for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on nasal trigeminal nerve endings of the rat.  Chemical Senses 25: 61-66.

 

Smith, William

 

James, S.A., Smith, W.K. and T.C. Vogelmann. 1999.  Ontogenetic differences in mesophyll structure and chlroophyll distribution in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. Globulus (Myrtaceae). Amer. J. Bot., 86:198-207.

Turunen, M.T., T.C. Vogelmann, W.K. Smith. 1999. Effective UV-screening in Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp. Latifolia). Cotelydons and needles sampled from field plants. In Responses of Plant Metabolism to Air Pollution, L.J. DeKok and J. Stulen, [eds.], pp. 463-480, Backhuvs Publ., Leidon, The Netherlands. 563 pp.

Schoettle, A.W. and W.K. Smith. 1999. Interrelationships between light, photosynthesis, and nitrogen in the crown of mature Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia. Tree Physiology, 19:13-22.

Hattenschwiler, S. and W.K. Smith. 1999. Natural seedling occurrence in treeline conifers: A case study from the central Rocky Mountains, USA. Acta Oecologia 20:219-224.

Germino, M.A. and W.K. Smith. 1999. Sky exposure, crown architecture and low temperature photoinhibition in conifer seedlings at alpine treeline. Plant, Cell & Environment, 22:407-415.

Turunen, M., T.C. Vogelman and W.K. Smith. 1999. UV-screening in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia) cotelydons and needles. International J. Plant Sciences, 160:315-320.

Germino, M.J. and W.K. Smith. 2000. Influence of microsite and plant form on photosynthetic responses to frost and high sunlight. Ecology in press.

Germino, M.J. and W.K. Smith. 2000. Interactions of microsite, plant form, and low-temperature photoinhibition in alpine plants. Artic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, in press.

Germino, M.J. and W.K. Smith. 2000. High resistance to low-temperature photoinhibition in two alpine, snowbank species, Physiologia Plantarum, in press.

 

(4 other manuscripts are now in review; an edited book is in progress, “Scaling photosynthesis from inside the leaf to the canopy, W.K. Smith, T.C. Vogelmann, and C. Critchley, Ecological Physiology Series, Academic Press, 459 pgs).

 

Waters Shuler, Jennifer

 

Waters et al. (1999)  Current Biology 9:649-652.  Mad2 binding by Phosphorylated Kinetochores links error detection and checkpoint action in mitosis.

 

Tague, Brian

 

Chrispeels, Oettinger, Janvier and Tague (2000) AtZFP1, encoding Arabidopsis thaliana C2H2 zing-finger protein 1, is expressed downstream of photomorphogenic activiation.  Plant Molec. Biol. 42:279-290.

 

Weigl, Peter

 

Weigl, P.D. and T.W. Knowles. 1999. Antiquity of southern Appalachian grass balds: the role of keystone megaherbivores in R.P. Eckerlin, ed. Proceedings of the Appalachian Biogeography Symposium,  VA Museum of Natural History No. 7, p. 215-224.

Browne, R., P. Weigl et al. 1999.  Mountaintops as islands: I Genetic variation among southern Appalachian populations of the endangered northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus, VA Musuem of Natural History, p. 205-214.

 

Zeyl, Clifford

 

“Budding yeast as a model organism for population genetics”.  Invited review for Yeast, in press and expected in print by June 2000.

 

 

II. Papers and Presentations

 

 

Anderson, David

 

Nunn, G and D. Anderson. Phylogenetic relationships of Pacific Pterodroma petrels.  80th Annual Meeting of the AAAS, San Francisco State University, June 22 1999

Clifford, L. and D. Anderson.  Constraint and selection in the evolution of booby clutch size. 80th Annual Meeting of the AAAS, San Francisco State University, June 22 1999

Huyvaert, K and D. Anderson.  Components of fitness in juvenile survivorship of masked boobies. 80th Annual Meeting of the AAAS, San Francisco State University, June 22 1999

Fernández, P. and D. Anderson.  Foraging behavior of waved albatrosses revealed by satellite tracking and its relationship to reproductive rate.  80th Annual Meeting of the AAAS, San Francisco State University, June 22 1999

Anderson, D.  Experimental evaluation of the role of cost of reproduction in the evolution of masked booby brood size. 80th Annual Meeting of the AAAS, San Francisco State University, June 22 1999

Anderson, D.  Exorcising the ghost of food limitation past: Costs of reproduction and the evolution of masked booby reproductive rate.  Invited seminar, University of Illinois, November 19 1999

Von Lippke, I., R. Curry, and D. Anderson.  Social structure and kinship of a cooperative breeder, the Hood mockingbird, Galápagos.  American Ornithologists' Union Meeting, Ithaca NY, August 1999

Von Lippke, I., R. Curry, and D. Anderson.  Influencia del rango social en el exito reproductivo del cucube de Española, revelado a traves de paternidad genetica con analisis de microsatelites de AND.  Neotropical Ornithological Congress, Monterey, Mexico, 6 October 1999

Anderson, D.  Finch beaks crack more than seeds.  Invited presentation, Fermilab Symposium on the Nature of Science.  Batavia IL, March 18 2000

Anderson, D. K. Cousins, P. Fernández, and P. Sievert. Foraging destinations of breeding laysan and black-footed albatrosses in relation to longline fishery activity.  2nd International Conference on Biology and Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels, Honolulu, May 10 2000

Huyvaert, K., D. Anderson, T. Jones, W. Duan, and P. Parker.  Extra-pair copulations in waved albatrosses. 2nd International Conference on Biology and Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels, Honolulu, May 10 2000

Nunn, G and D. Anderson. Phylogenetic relationships of Pacific Pterodroma petrels. 2nd International Conference on Biology and Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels, Honolulu, May 10 2000

Hyrenbach, D., D. Anderson, and P Fernández.  Movements of Hawaiian albatrosses in relation to oceanographic variability. 2nd International Conference on Biology and Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels, Honolulu, May 10 2000

 

Ashley-Ross, Miriam

 

Butcher, M.T. and M.A. Ashely-Ross. 1999.  Age differences in the kinematics of the fetlock joint of the leading forelimb during galloping in Thoroughbred racehorses.  Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, Atlanta, January 3-6, 2000.  Published in American Zoologist, 39(5): 106A.

“How locomotion is controlled:  Can salamanders teach us general principles?”  Invited seminar, Bennett College, April 24, 2000.

 

Browne, Robert

 

Browne, R.A., J.W. LaVoie and F.A. Bynum.  Tree and mammal species richness in Piedmont North Carolina 1760-1996.  Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Meeting, Gatlinburg, TN, Nov. 1-3, 1999.

Browne, R.A., B.S. Arbogast and P.D. Weigl.  Late Pleistocene forest dynamics and genetic diversity of North American flying squirrels.  Joint Meeting of Ecological Society of America and British Ecological Society, Orlando, FL, April 19-13, 2000.

 

Conner, William

 

Chemical Ecology of the Scarlet-bodied Wasp Moth, 52nd Annual Meeting of the Lepidopterists’ Society. Tucson, Arizona.  August 6th, 1999.

 

Dimock, Ronald

 

International:

Dimock,, R. V., Jr., R. A. Tankersley and M. Byrne. New perspectives on the gills and pallial organs of freshwater mussels (Paleoheterodonta: Unionoida: Unionoidea). Symposium on the biology and evolution of the Bivalvia, University of Cambridge, England, Sept 14-17.

Fisher, G. R. and R. V. Dimock, Jr.  Correlation of protein synthesis with morphological changes during metamorphosis of the glochidia of Utterbackia imbecillis (Unionoida:  Unionidae). Symposium on the biology and evolution of the Bivalvia, University of Cambridge, England, Sept 14-17.

 

National:

Dimock,, R. V., Jr., R. A. Tankersley and M. Byrne.  Functional morphology of gills and pallial organs of freshwater mussels: in vivo imaging using video endoscopy. Annual Meeting, Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, Atlanta, Jan 4-8.

 

Regional:

Dimock,, R. V., Jr.,  New perspectives on the gills and pallial organs of freshwater mussels. Annual Meeting, Association of Southeastern Biologists, Chattanooga, TN April 5-8.

 

Esch, Gerald

 

Esch, G. W.  “Long-term parasite ecology in a North Carolina farm pond”.  Annual Meeting of the Irish Society of Parasitologists, Dublin, Ireland, September 1999.

Barger, M. A. and G. W. Esch.  “A one-host life cycle for Plagioporus sinitsini”. Annual Meeting of the American Society of Parasitologists, Monterey, California, July, 1999.

Barger, M. A. and G. W. Esch.  “The parasite component community of fishes in Basin Creek, North Carolina”.  Southeastern Society of Parasitologists, Chattanooga, Tennessee, March, 2000.

 

Eure, Herman

 

1) Presentation/Introduction and Chair of Session for the American Society of Parasitologists (ASP) Mentor Award Session, July 9, 1999, Monterey Marriott, Monterey, CA.

2) Member, the ASP’s Advisory Committee to the Monterey Bay Aquarium.

 

Kron, Kathleen

 

International Botanical Congress, XVI, 2 Aug 1999.  Symposium on Phylogenetic Nomenclature, The need for a phylogenetic nomenclature. (Invited)

Belgian Dendrology Society, Hardy Ghent Azalea Study Day, Brussels, Belgium, 20 May 2000. Evolutionary relationships of the azaleas in Rhododendron section Pentanthera. (Invited)

Elliottia 2000 Symposium, Georgia Southern Botanic Garden, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA. 21-23 June 2000.  Systematics of Elliottia using molecular data. 21-23 June 2000. (Invited)

 

Kuhn, Raymond

 

American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene – Washington, DC – 1 paper

Twenty-sixth Annual Fancy Gap Immunoparasitology Workshop – Organizer and presented three papers.

Seminars presented at other institutions:

      Catawba College

      High Point University

      Western Carolina University

      Western Kentucky University

      UNC-Asheville

      Duke University Medical Center


Muday, Gloria

 

The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein. Symposia talk; American Society of Gravitational and Space Biology, November 11, 1999

NPA binding protein and annexin-like proteins from zucchini bind to actin filaments. Mini-symposia talk, Annual Meeting of the American Society of Plant Physiologist, July 28, 1999

Dissection of the functional role of two distinct auxin transport polarities in Arabidopsis roots.  Invited speaker at the International Meeting:  Auxin 2000 in Corsica, France May 14, 2000.

 

Silman, Miles

 

Invited Seminars:

1. Department of Botany, Duke University, Feb. 2000

2. Department of Biology, Francis Marion University, March 2000

3. “Long-term Ecological Research at Cocha Casto Biological Station” Conservation International, Washington, DC, Oct. 1999.

 

Silver, Wayne

 

Finger, T.E., Schaefer, M., Bottger, B., and Silver, W.L. (1999) Trigeminal collaterals in the olfactory epithelium and bulb: A route for direct modulation of olfactory information by trigeminal stimuli?  Presented at the Twenty First Annual Meeting of the Association for Chemoreception Sciences.  Sarasota, FL.

Alimohammadi, H. and Silver, W.L. (2000) Selective blockade of chemosensitive trigeminal afferents by guanethidine.  Presented at the Twenty Second Annual Meeting of the Association for Chemoreception Sciences.  Sarasota, FL.

 

Smith, William

 

Invited Talks:

Smith, W.K. 1999.  Low temperature as an ecological factor and implications for global climate change. Workshop on “The impact f global warming on the frequency and intensity of climatic extreme events”, Aspen Institute for Global Change, Aspen, CO.

Smith, W.K. 2000. Scaling structural responses in plants to environmental stress –Who needs physiology. Topics in Ecology Seminar Program, Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana (March 23-25).

 

(a total of 5 papers were presented by myself and with students or colleagues at national/international meetings at several locations in the US and abroad.  I was the presentator on one paper at the ESA meetings in Spokane, WA, August 2-7).

 

Tague, Brian

 

Ferguson and Tague (1999) Transformation of the biennial Lunaria annua. North Carolina Molecular Biology Consortium Thirteenth Annual Retreat, Asheville, NC, September 10-12, 1999.

 

Weigl, Peter

 

Ward, A.B., P.D. Weigl and R.M. Conroy. Functional morphology of raptor hindlimbs: a comparative study of owls and hawks.  Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting. Atlanta, January 2000.Zeyl, Clifford

 

“The rise and fall of fitness in evolving yeast populations”, invited seminar at East Carolina University, Greenville NC, 12 April 2000

“Quantitative genetics of fitness increases in evolving yeast populations”, presented by Angela Roles at SEEPAGE (Southeastern Population Genetics and Ecology, Mountain Lake VA), 24-26 September 1999

“Fitness tradeoffs between different environments in yeast populations”, poster presented by Erin Cooke at SEEPAGE (Southeastern Population Genetics and Ecology, Mountain Lake VA), 24-26 September 1999

 

 

III. Editorships, Offices, and Consultancies

 

Anderson, Dave

 

Delegate, Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands

Invited Participant, World Wildlife Fund Biological Assessment workshop, Galapagos Islands, 25-28 May 1999.

 

Ashley-Ross, Miriam

 

Co-chair of the committee and representative of the Division of Vertebrate Morphology to the Public Affairs Committee of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology.

 

Representative of the Division of Vertebrate Morphology to the Electronic Communications Committee of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology

 

Browne, Robert

 

Editorial Board Member, International Journal of Salt Lake Research

 

Dimock, Ronald

 

      Editorial Board, Freshwater Mussel Conservation Society

      Treasurer-Elect, Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology

      Chair, Meritorious Teaching Award Committee, Association of Southeastern Biologists

 

Esch, Gerald

 

Editor, Journal of Parasitology

Member, Council, American Society of Parasitologists

 

Eure, Herman

 

Consultant, The Journal of Parasitology

Member, Fellows Committee, The American Society of Parasitology

Member, Committee on Minority Recruitment, AIBS

Facilitator for Chairs Sessions, Council of College Arts and Sciences, July 29-31, 1999

Chair, Biology Section – Oak Ridge Associated Universities/NSF Predoctoral Review Committee, January 12-15, 2000.

 

Kron, Kathleen

 

Associate Editor of Systematic Botany

Editorial Board of the Edinburgh Journal of Botany

Botanical Society of America/Karling Research Awards Committee

Nominations Committee, American Society of Plant Taxonomists

National Science Foundation, Systematic Biology Panel, 19-22 October 1999.

 

Kuhn, Raymond

 

Associate Editor – Journal of Immunology (1992-Oct. 1999)

Editorial Board – Veterinary Parasitology

 

Lane, Hugo

 

1)      Southeast Association of Advisors for the Health Professions (SAAHP) representative to the National Association of Advisors for the Health Professions (NAAHP) Board of Directors

2)      NAAHP national Secretary

3)      Member on NAAHP Initiative 2000 committee

4)      Member of NAAHP Professional Ethics Committee

5)      Program Chair for the 2000 National Meeting, Orlando, Fl

6)      SAAHP Past President

7)      SAAHP Nominations Committee

8)      Health Professions Advisors of North Carolina (HPANC) Vice-President

9)      North Carolina Academy of Science Yarborough Grants Committee

      Consultant and Reviewer for the Biology Department, Belmont Abbey College

 

Muday, Gloria

 

Monitoring Editor for the journal:  Plant Physiology

 

Silman, Miles

 

Conservation International, Pro Bono Publico, Ca. 100 hrs

Cocha Castv Biological Station Advisory Board, Indet.

 

Silver, Wayne

 

Treasurer, Association for Chemoreception Sciences

Florida State University Sensory Research Institute (2 days)

 

Smith, William

 

Subject Editor, Tree Physiology

 

Weigl, Peter

 

Nature Conservancy, SAHC and Southern Appalachian Forest Coalition

 

 

IV. External Grants Received

Browne, Carole

 

$233,640.     Funded at the Marine Biological Laboratory for 3 years with co-PIs Carole Browne and Mike Tytell. National Science Foundation REU proposal.

 

Browne, Robert

 

$25,000.       Environmental Studies Research Opportuniteis (in conjunction with the Development Office). Coca-Cola Foundation.

 

Johnson, A. Daniel

 

$76,274        70kD Heat Shock Protein Expression During Atheronecrosis.  American Heart Association.

 

Kron, Kathleen

 

$190,000.     Origin and diversification of accinieae using molecular and morphological data to determine major clades of the blueberry tribe.  National Science Foundation, Division of Environmental Biology.

 

$5,000.         Molecular Systematics of Cavendishia.  National Science Foundation, Research Experience for Undergraduates Supplement (support for summer research for Suzanne Steele, Class 2001).

 

Smith, William

 

$39,615        Evaluation of landscape variability and CO2 source/sink activities. NSF Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology.

 

$25,000           Research Experiences for Undergraduates. NSF.

 

Current Grants:

 

Smith, W.K. 1997-2000. “Quantification of Carbon Sources and Sinks for Northern Plains and Mountain Landscapes Using Simultaneous Aircraft, Tower and Leaf Measurements of CO2 and H2O Vapor Flux, and Isotopic Signatures” Joint Program on Terrestrial Ecology and Global Change administered by the Department of Energy (DOE), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Environment Protection Agency (EPA). $1.2 mil/3 yrs (with 4 PI’s).

Vogelmann, T.C. and W.K. Smith. 1997-2000. Adaptation to high sunlight and low temperature stress in snow algae (Chlamydamonas nivalis) in the alpine Tundra. NSF Life in Extreme Environments Program, $268,000/3 yrs.

Smith, W.K. 1997-2000. Multiple stress factors limiting photosynthesis in alpine plants. NSF Evolutionary and Ecological Physiology Program. $169,000/3 yrs.

Welker, J.M. and W.K. Smith (with 5 other Co-PI’s).  1997-2000. A stable isotope facility for the University of Wyoming. NSF Facilities Improvement Program, $636,000/3 yrs.