DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY
FACULTY ACTIVITIES REPORT
FOR JULY 1, 2000 TO JUNE 30, 2001
P. Fernández and D. J. Anderson. 2000. Nocturnal and diurnal foraging activity of Hawaiian albatrosses detected with a new immersion monitor. Condor. in press. This paper appeared during the 00-01 period, although I thought when I compiled the 99-00 annual that it would appear during that report's time frame, so it is listed now in both annual reports.
P. Fernández, D. J. Anderson, P. Sievert, and K. P. Huyvaert. 2001. Foraging destinations of three low-latitude albatross species. Journal of Zoology 255.
L. Clifford and D. Anderson. Experimental demonstration of the insurance value of extra eggs in
an obligately siblicidal seabird. Behavioral Ecology 112 (3).
E. Tarlow, M. Wikelski, and D. J. Anderson. Hormonal correlates of siblicide in Nazca
boobies. Hormones and Behavior, in press.
Browne, R.A., 2000. An Environmental Ethic: John Muir Aldo Leopold, Rachel Carson, the Moravians and Wake Forest University. Year of Ethics and Honor, Wake Forest University, Pages 27-29.
Arbogast, B.S., R.A. Browne and P.D. Weigl. 2001. Evolutionary genetics and Pleistocene biogeography of North American tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus). Journal of Mammalogy 82:43-56.
Browne, R.A. 2001. Genetic analysis of the Haw Knob, North Carolina population of the Northern Flying Squirrel. Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Agency.
W. E. Conner and S. Weller (2001) A Quest for Alkaloids: The Curious Relationship Between Tiger Moths and Plants Containing Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids In Cardé, R. and Millar, J., Advances in Insect Chemical Ecology, Cambridge University Press.
Conner, W. E., R. Boada, F. Schroeder, and T. Eisner. 2000. Chemical defense: Bestowal of a nuptial alkaloidal garment by a male moth upon its mate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97:14406-14411.
Rossini, C., E. R. Hoebeke, V. K Ivengar, W. E. Conner, M. Eisner, and T. Eisner 2000. Alkaloid content of parasitoids reared from pupae of an alkaloid-sequestering arctiid moth (Utetheisa ornatrix). Entomological News 111(4):287-290.
Coro, F., Conner, W. E., and M. V. Sanderford, 2000. Intraspecific acoustic communication in a Caribbean moth. In Brain Function and Behavior, Drugs and Disease: Neurosciences in the Caribbean. Wray, S.R., Hernandez, N., and Parshad, O. (eds.).
Weller, S. J., Simmons, R.B., Boada, R., and W. E. Conner 2000. Abdominal modications occurring in wasp mimics of the Ctenuchine-Euchromiine clade (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 93:920-928.
Douglas, H. D., J.E. Co, T. H. Jones, and W. E. Conner 2001. Chemical repellents identified from the feathers of crested auklets (Aethia cristella). Naturwissenschaften (accepted)
Lim, VI and Curran, JF. (2001). Analysis of codon:anticodon interactions within the ribosome provides new insights into codon reading and the genetic code structure. RNA, in press.
Fisher, G. R. and R. V. Dimock, Jr. 2000. Viability of the glochidia of Utterbackia imbecillis following their removal from the parental mussel. pp. 185-188. In, R. A. Tankersley, D. I. Warmolts, G. T. Watters, B. J. Armatage, P. D. Johnson and R. S. Butler,(editors. Freshwater Mollusk Symposium Proceedings, Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, Ohio.
Shadoan, M. K. and R. V. Dimock, Jr. 2000. Differential sensitivity of hooked (Utterbackia imbecillis) and hookless (Megalonaias nervosa) glochidia to chemical and mechanical stimuli (Bivalvia: Unionidae). pp. 93-102. In, R. A. Tankersley, D. I. Warmolts, G. T. Watters, B. J. Armatage, P. D. Johnson and R. S. Butler,(editors. Freshwater Mollusk Symposium Proceedings, Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, Ohio.
Dimock, R. V., Jr. 2000. Oxygen consumption by juvenile Pyganodon cataracta (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in response to declining oxygen tension. pp. 1-8. In, R. A. Tankersley, D. I. Warmolts, G. T. Watters, B. J. Armatage, P. D. Johnson and R. S. Butler,(editors. Freshwater Mollusk Symposium Proceedings, Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, Ohio.
Fisher, G. R., R. E. Kuhn and R. V. Dimock, Jr. 2000. The symbiotic water mite Unionicola formosa (Acari: Unionicolidae) ingests mucus and tissue of its molluscan host. J.Parasitol. 86: 1254-1258.
Perspectives in Parasitology: The Ecology and Diversity of Animal Parasites. Cambridge University Press, 555 pp. By Albert O. Bush, Jacqueline C. Fernandez, Gerald W. Esch, and J. Richard Seed. March, 2001.
Zelmer, D.A., and G.W. Esch. 2000. Snail size as a determinant of prepatent period duration in Helisoma anceps infected with Halipegus occidualis. Journal of Parasitology 86:891-893.
Barger, M.C. and G.W. Esch. 2001. Downstream changes in composition of the parasite community in fishes in an Appalachian stream. Journal of Parasitology 87:250-255.
Kron, K. A. 2001. Evolutionary relationships of azaleas and rhododendrons. Proceeding International Rhododendron Species Symposium, April 1999, Bellevue, Washington. Pp. 17-28.
Kron, K. A. 2001. Morphological diversity and evolution of the Pentanthera azaleas. Belgian Dendrological Sociey Yearbook. Pp. 1-8.
Small, I. and K. A. Kron. 2001. Placing heathers on the “tree of life”. Yearbook of the Heather Society. Pp. 15-21.
Fisher, G., R.V. Dimock and R.E. Kuhn. 2000. The water mite Unionicola Formosa (Acari: Unionicolidae) ingests mucus and tissue of its molluscn host. J. Parasitol. 86: 1254-1258.
Seminars given: Study Habits - to Freshmen- (August 2000) Interviewing Skills – to seniors - (September 2000). Applying to Medical School – to Juniors -(April 2001)
Presentations: Orientation 2000: Presentation to parents
Orientation 2000: Presentation to students
Campus Day 2001: presentation to prospective students and their parents
Rashotte, AM, DeLong, A, and Muday, GK (2001) Genetic and chemical reductions in protein phosphatase activity alter auxin transport, gravity response and lateral root elongation; Plant Cell In press June 2001
Brown, DE, Rashotte, AM, Murphy, AS, Peer , WS, Taiz ,L , and Muday, GK (2001) Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol 126: In press in June Arabidopsis issue
Peer, WA, Murphy, AS, Brown, DE, Tague, BW, Muday, GK, Taiz, L.(2001) Flavonoid accumulation patterns correlate with developmental phenotypes of transparent testa mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 126: In press in June Arabidopsis issue
Muday, GK (2001) Maintenance of asymmetric cellular localization of an auxin transport protein through interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. J of Plant Growth Reg 19: In press (June)
Hu S, Brady, SR, Kovar, D, Staiger, C, Clark, G, Roux, S, and Muday, GK. (2000) Identification of plant actin binding proteins by F- actin affinity chromatography. Plant Journal 24: 127-137
Pitman, N.C.A., J. Terborgh, M.R. Silman, P. Nunez, V., D.A.Neill, C.E. Ceron, W.A. Palacios, and M. Aulestia. In press. Commonness and rarity in upper Amazonian tree communities. Ecology.
Terborgh, J., Pitman, N.C.A., M.R. Silman, H. Schlichter, P. Nunez, V. In press. Maintenance of diversity in tropical forests. In D. Levey ed. Frugivory and Seed Dispersal.
Finger, T.E., Silver, W.L. and Restrepo, D. (editors) Neurobiology of Taste and Smell 2nd Edition . Wiley-Liss, Inc. 479 pp. 2000.
Walker, J.C., Kendal-Reed, M., and Silver, W.L. (2001) Introduction to Papers for the AChemS Symposium 'Short-Term Effects of Environmental Chemicals' Chem. Senses. 26: 325-326
Bryant, B. and Silver, W.L. (2000) Chemesthesis: The common chemical sense. In T.E. Finger, W.L. Silver, and D. Restrepo. (editors) Neurobiology of Taste and Smell 2nd Edition . Wiley-Liss, Inc. 479 pp. 73-100.
Finger, T.E., Restrepo, D., Silver, W.L. (2000) Overview and introduction. In T.E. Finger, W.L. Silver, and D. Restrepo. (editors) Neurobiology of Taste and Smell 2nd Edition . Wiley-Liss, Inc. 479 pp. 3-9.
Robert D. Kelly, E. Raymond Hunt, Jr., William A. Reiners, William K. Smith, Jeffrey M Welker 2001. Correlations of Daytime Carbon Dioxide Flux with Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Index for Four Different Mountain/Plains Ecosystems. J. Geophysial Research, accepted
Slaton, MR and WK Smith. 2001. Relationships between leaf gas exchange, structure, and nitrogen content in Aquilegia caerula and Raphanus sativa grown and measured at ambient and elevated CO2 levels. Pant, Cell & Environment, accepted.
Bynum, MR and WK Smith. 2001. Floral movements in response to thunderstorms improve reproductive effort in the alpine species Gentiana algida (Gentianaceae). American J Botany, In press.
Hunt, ER Jr., Kelly, RD , Fahnestock, JT, Smith, WK, Welker, JM, and WA Reiners. 2001. Combination of remotely sensed data and net ecosystem fluxes to estimate carbon sequestration. J. Geophysical Research, accepted.
Germino, MA and WK Smith. 2001. Relative importance of microhabitat, plant form, and photosynthetic physiology to carbon gain in two subalpine herbs. Functional Ecology, in press.
Germino, MJ and WK Smith. 2001. Influence of microsite and plant form on photosynthetic responses to frost and high sunlight. Plant Ecologyt, In press.
Slaton, MR and WK Smith. 2001. Differences in mesophyll architecture in alpine, desert, and mountain species. Annals of Botany, accepted.
Slaton, MR, ER Hunt and WK Smith. 2001. Estimating near-infrared leaf reflectance from leaf structural characteristics. American Journal of Botany,88:278-284.
Germino, MA and WK Smith. 2000. Differences in microsite, plant form, and low-temperature photosynthesis in alpine plants Artic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 32:388-396
Germino, MA and WK Smith. 2000. High resistance to low-temperature photoinhibition in two alpine snowbank species. Physiologia Plantarum 110:89-95.
Pataki, DE, Orem, R, and WK Smith. 2000. Sap flux of co-occuring species in a western subalpine forest during seasonal drought. Ecology 81:2557-2566.
Mantis, J. and BW Tague (2000) Comparing the utility of b-glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein for detection of weak promoter activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Molec. Biol. Report. 18: 319-330
Peer, WA, AS Murphy, DE Brown, BW Tague, GK Muday and L Taiz. (2001) Flavonol precursor accumulation patterns correlate with developmental phenotypes of transparent testa mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant Physiology Volume 126 (for June of 2001)
Brown DE, AM Rashotte, AS Murphy, BW Tague, WA Peer, L Taiz, and GK Muday. (2001) Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiology Volume 126, (for June of 2001).
Zeyl, C. and J. A. G. M. DeVisser. 2001. Estimates of the rate and distribution of fitness effects of spontaneous mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 157: 53-61.
Zeyl, C., M. Mizesko, and J. A. G. M. DeVisser. 2001. Mutational meltdown in laboratory yeast populations. Evolution, in press (publication scheduled for 05/01).
Zeyl, C. 2001. Book review of Adaptive evolution of genes and genomes, for Journal of Parasitology.
Huyvaert, KP, BD Worden, PJ Kappes, DJ Anderson, PG Parker. Extra-pair copulation behavior in waved albatrosses. The Waterbird Society, Plymouth, Mass., November 2000.
Steeves, T, DJ Anderson, and V Friesen. Genetic evidence for a new tropical seabird species, the Nazca booby (Sula granti). American Ornithologists' Union Meeting, St. John's, NF, August 2000.
Friesen V, T Steeves, and DJ Anderson. Two Special Seabirds, the Nazca Booby and Madeiran Storm Petrel, and a Tribute to Luis Monteiro. Pacific Seabird Group Meeting, Napa, CA.
Morgan SM, DJ Anderson, and MA Ashley-Ross. Incubation in masked boobies. SICB Meeting, Chicago, Jan 2001.
Tarlow E, M Wikelski, DJ Anderson. International Workshop, Physiological Basis
of Life Histories, Sevwiesen, Germany July 2000. Chick Harassment by Non-parental
Adults: Not Activated by Steroid Hormones
Tarlow E, M Wikelski, DJ Anderson. International Conference, Behavioral Ecology, Zurich, Switzerland. August 2000. Hormonal Correlates of Siblicide in Galápagos Nazca Boobies
"When muscles have mixed fiber types: effects on mechanical performance" Invited seminar, Brown University, April 2, 2001.
“How locomotion is controlled: Can salamanders teach us general principles?” Invited seminar, Mars Hill College, March 28, 2001.
“A brief history of functional morphology” M. A. Ashley-Ross and G. B. Gillis, presented in the symposium “Molecules, Muscles, and Macroevolution: Integrative Functional Morphology,” Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (SICB) annual meeting, January 5, 2001.
“The effect of fiber type heterogeneity on work and power output of hindlimb muscles of the tiger salamander” J. U. Barker and M. A. Ashley-Ross, presented at the SICB annual meeting, January 7, 2001.
“Incubation in Masked Boobies” S. M. Morgan, M. A. Ashley-Ross and D. J. Anderson, presented at the SICB annual meeting, January 5, 2001.
“How locomotion is controlled: Can salamanders teach us general principles?” Invited seminar, Bennett College, April 24, 2000.
“Incubation in Masked Boobies” S. M. Morgan, D. J. Anderson and M. A. Ashley-Ross. Perspectives in Biology Symposium poster presentation, November 10-11, 2000.
Browne, C.L. E. E. Rankin, H. Calvert, and M. Tytell. The effect of exogenous heat shock protein 70 on actin and tubulin networks in sea urchin coelomocytes, presented at the American Society for Cell Biology meeting, San Fransisco, December, 2000
Bats, Moths, and Poetry: The Evolution of Acoustic Communication in Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). XXI International Congress of Entomology. August 20-26, 2000. Iguazu Falls, Brazil
Fisher, G. R. and R. V. Dimock, Jr. The role of the larval mantle cells during metamorphosis of Utterbackia imbecillis (Bivalvia: Unionidae).. Annual Meeting, Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, Chicago, Jan 3-7.
Barger, M.A. and G.W. Esch. “The effects of spatial heterogeneity on the richness and composition of the fish parasite community of Basin Creek, North Carolina”. Annual Meeting of the American Society of Parasitologists, San Juan, Puerto Rico, June, 2000.
Esch, G.W., M.A. Barger, and K.J. Fellis. Invited presentation: “The life cycles of digenetic trematodes: style elegance, complexity”. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Chicago, Illinois, January 2001.
Esch, G.W. Invited speaker, President’s Symposium: “Studies in Charlie’s Pond: A stream of consciousness”. Annual Meeting, Southeastern Society of Parasitologists, Rome Georgia, May, 2001.
“Necrosis in atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-/- knockout mice is preceded by loss of Hsp72: are oxysterols to blame?” International Symposium on Heat Shock Proteins in Biology and Medicine, Woods Hole, MA, November 8, 2000.
“Hsp70 inhibition by oxysterols in atherosclerotic plaques.” American Society of Cell Biology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 13, 2000.
Kron, K. A., E. A. Powell, and J. L. Luteyn. 2000. Molecular systematics of Macleania and Psammisia and their relationships to other members of Vaccinieae. Annual Meetings of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists and the Botanical Society of America, Portland, Oregon. 6-10 August 2000.
“Immune regulation by secreted producst of laval Taenia crassiceps”. Twenty-seventh Annual Fancy Gap Immunoparasitolgoy Workshop. Fancy Gap, VA. Oct. 2000.
“Immune destruction of larval Taenia crassiceps”. Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Houston, TX. Nov. 2000.
“Immune regulation in experimental cysticercosis”. Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Society of Parasitologists. Rome, GA. May 2000.
Moderator, and panelist, at two presentations of the Regional Meeting of Southeastern Association of Advisors for the Health Professions (SAAHP)
Poster presentation at the Council for Undergraduate Research – Research Link 2001 meeting at St. Leo’s College, FL on February 22-24, 2001 on “Genetics: more than just fly crosses?”
The absence of flavonoids in the tt4 mutant leads to elevated auxin transport and impaired gravitropic bending at the International Arabidopsis meeting, Madison Wisconsin, June 2001
Auxin transport polarity is linked to the actin cytoskeleton and embryo development. Invited seminar, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, May 22, 2001.
Polar transport of a plant hormone utilizes the actin cytoskeleton and controls gravity directed embryo polarity. NASA Cell Sciences Working Group meeting. March 2001
Mechanisms for Regulation of Amount and Polarity of Auxin Transport: Invited Departmental Seminar; McGill University; Montreal Canada, October 27, 2000
Plant Hormone Transport is Required for Developmental Polarity. Developmental Physiology Gordon Conference, Plymouth, NH July 2000
Florida Institute of Technology (Nov. 2000)
Guilford College (March 2001)
H. Alimohammadi and W. L. Silver, (2001) THE EFFECTS OF ACETAZOLAMIDE ON TRIGEMINAL SENSITIVITY TO NICOTINE AND CARBON DIOXIDE. Presented at the Twenty Third Annual Meeting of the Association for Chemoreception Sciences. Sarasota, FL.
W. Silver Invited Speaker: North Carolina Dietetic Association Annual Meeting. The Chemical Senses and Nutrition. Raleigh, NC
A total of 7 papers were presented by students and colleagues at national/international meetings.
Ferguson, BJ and BW Tague (2000) Factors affecting flowering in the biennial crucifer, Barbarea verna, North Carolina Plant Molecular Biology Consortium Fourteenth Annual Retreat, Boone NC, September 2000.
“The genetics of adaptation in serially transferred yeast populations, poster co-authored with WFU graduate Angela Roles, and “The evolution of polymorphisms maintained by frequency-dependent selection in an asexual Saccharomyces cerevisiae population,” poster co-authored with graduate student Sara Campbell, both presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Evolution, Bloomington IN, 06/00, and at the Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology meeting in Seattle, WA, 07/00
“Fluconazole resistance in pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae,” poster co-authored with graduate student Brian Grimberg and presented at the Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology meeting in Seattle, WA, 07/00
“The genetics of evolving yeast populations: are adaptive mutations recessive?,” talk co-authored with Thomas Vanderford, WFU undergraduate; “Parasitic mitochondria in yeast,” poster co-authored with WFU undergraduate Erin Cooke; "The resistance of clinical isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to fluconazole,” talk co-authored with graduate student Brian Grimberg, and “The evolution of polymorphisms maintained by frequency-dependent selection in an asexual Saccharomyces cerevisiae population,” talk co-authored with graduate student Sara Campbell, all presented at the annual meeting of the Southeastern Population Ecology and Genetics Group, Highlands, NC 10/06/00
“Things fall apart: mutation accumulation and genetic parasites in yeast”, and “The genetics of adaptation in yeast”, seminars presented 02/01at University of Toronto and University of Toronto at Mississauga, Canada, respectively
“The genetics of adaptation in yeast”, seminar presented 09/00 at University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, U.K. and Imperial College, Ascot, U. K.
Delegate, Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galápagos Islands
Chair of the committee and representative of the Division of Vertebrate Morphology to the Public Affairs Committee of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology
Representative of the Division of Vertebrate Morphology to the Electronic Communications Committee of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology
Member of the Editorial Board of Insect Science, an Online Journal in Insect Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
Research Affiliate of the Archbold Biological Station
Member of the steering committee for the RNA Society of North Carolina.
Treasurer, Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology
Editor, Journal of Parasitology
Consultant, The Journal of Parasitology
Member, the Fellows Committee, The American Society of Parasitology (ASP)
Member, Committee on Minority Recruitments, American Institute of Biological Sciences
Session Chair, ASP National Conference, Puerto Rico, July 2000.
Chair, Developmental and Evolutionary Biology
Review Panel, Oak Ridge Associated Universities and the National Science Foundation. February 3-6, 2001.
Editorial Board: Edinburgh Journal of Botany
Associate Editor: Systematic Botany
Chair: Karling Student Research Award Committee, Botanical Society of America
National Science Foundation Systematic Biology Panel, October 2001 (3 days).
External Reviewer for Foreign Dissertation: Lemson, Phylogeny and taxonomy of Andersonia. University of Western Australia, May 2001 (1 day).
Editorial Board of the Journal “Veterinary Parasitology”
Health Professions Advisors of North Carolina – Vice President
Southeastern Association of Advisors for the Health Professions – Past President
National Association of Advisors for the Health Professions – President Elect
North Carolina Academy of Science – Yarboro Grants Committee
External Review Committee, Vanderbilt University’s review of their Health Professions Program (2 days on site, 15 hours preparing documents)
Monitoring Editor for Plant Physiology
Member of the Governing Board of the American Society of Gravitational and Space Biology
Treasurer, Association for Chemoreception Sciences
NIH ad hoc grant reviewer (1 day)
Subject Editor, Tree Physiology
Lead Editor, Scaling Photosynthesis from the Chloroplast to the Landscape, Physiolgical Ecology Series, Academic Press, NY (with TC Vogelmann and C Critchley).
Ingenuity Database Consultant, ~5 hours/week
Reviewed 3 chapters of a book manuscript (publisher etc.) 8 hours
Reynolds Junior Faculty Leave, fall 2000 semester
$5,000. Functional significance of foot morphology in boobies (Aves: Sulidae). American Philosophical Society
$10,000. Effects of the "Jessica oil spill on Galápagos seabirds, Oak Foundation
$15,000 Effects of the "Jessica oil spill on Galápagos seabirds, Mead Foundation
$5,000. Cost of reproduction and the evolution of avian life histories, National Science Foundation REU
$3,000. Molecules, Muscles, and Macroevolution: Integrative Functional Morphology, National Science Foundation
$176,000 NSF REU renewal grant: Marine Models in Biological Research, $176,000 in direct costs for three years
$25,000 Environmental Studies Internships and Research Opportunities, Coca-Cola Foundation (in conjunction with Wake Forest development office)
$24,000 Self Assessment of Defensive Potential by Insect. Eppley Foundation for Research. Funded ($12,000 Eppley; $12,000 Wake Forest University matching)
$140,615 Frameshift regulation of the E. coli RNA polymerase genes, NIH
$232,325. Phylogenetics of Rhododendron (Rhodoreae, Ericoideae, Ericaceae) and its relationship to other members of the Ericoideae, National Science Foundation.
$305,401 Alpine Treeline Stability in a Changing Global Environment: Mechanisms of Conifer Tree Seedling Establishment. Evolutionary and Ecological Physiology, National Science Foundation, over three years.
$15,000 Workshop/Edited Book Proposal: Sclaing Photosynthesis From The Chloroplast To the Landscpe. 12th International Congress on Photosynthesis, Brisbane, Australia, August 18-22, 2001. Proposal has been submitted to NSF, USDA and DOE requesting partial funding from each for a total of $35,000 (NSF has just awarded $15,000 by phone).
$5000. Research Experience for Undergraduates (supplement to existing NSF award), National Science Foundation.
$180,000 The genetic architecture of adaptation in laboratory yeast populations. National Science Foundation.