History of Wake Forest University

by Percival Perry, Wake Forest College Bulletin January, 1974


History

The history of Wake Forest University divides naturally into three main periods:- (1) from the beginning of the institution in the early 1830's to the early 1860's, when the Civil War forced its temporary closing; (2) from 1865 to the early 1950's, when the movement of the college campus from Wake Forest, North Carolina, to Winston-Salem, North Carolina, was organized and carried out; and (3) from 1956, when the school began operation in Winston-Salem, to the present. The institution has seen difficult times and gone through hard struggles; but in each of the three periods the movement toward greater diversity and excellence of academic life was and continues to be steadily maintained. Now, as throughout its history, the guiding purpose of the University is to be found in the simple motto on the University seal: Pro Humanitate.

    BEGINNINGS TO THE EARLY 1860's

The founding of Wake Forest College in 1834 was one manifestation of the intellectual and humanitarian reform movement which characterized North Carolina and the nation in the decade of the 1830's. The beginnings of the College and the formation of the Baptist State Convention were closely interwoven. A leading motive for the organization of the Convention in 1830 was that it might serve as an agency for establishing an institution that would provide education under Christian influences for ministers and laymen.

The leaders in the movement for Convention and College were Baptist ministers and laymen from diverse backgrounds Martin Ross, a North Carolinian, long had been a prominent Baptist minister in the Chowan area and an advocate of an educated ministry; Thomas Meredith, a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, had been pastor first at New Bern and after 1825 at Edenton; and Samuel Wait, a graduate of Columbia College, New York, had been pastor of the New Bern Baptist Church since 1827. The inspiration of Ross, the scholarship of Meredith, who wrote the Convention Constitution and later founded and edited the Biblical Recorder, and the leadership of Wait combined to lead the Baptists of the State into the formation of the Baptist State Convention on March 26, 1830. Fourteen men, seven ministers and seven laymen, atappointed Wait as its agent to explain to churches, associations, and individuals the need for a college to provide "an education in the liberal arts in fields requisite for gentlemen."

For nearly three years Wait traveled over the state in his wagon, his wife and young daughter accompanying him. He visited churches and associations and the homes of individual Baptists, speaking to a large number of the approximately 15,000 Baptists who lived in the Piedmont and Coastal counties of the State. Perhaps as many as one-half of the Baptists opposed missions, education, and other benevolences, but after two years of educational canvassing Wait reported sufficient sentiment in favor of the program for the Convention to proceed.

A 600 acre plantation, located sixteen miles north of Raleigh, was purchased from Dr. Calvin Jones for $2,000 in 1832. The Legislature was asked to grant a charter for a literary institution based on the manual labor principle. The lobbying of opponents, both Baptist and non-Baptist was effective in the Legislature and only the tie-breaking vote of William D. Moseley, Speaker of the Senate, secured passage of the charter-granting bill. It was a meager charter, subject to various restrictions and limited to a period of 20 years, but the birth of Wake Forest had been achieved. Its subsequent growth would be the result of creative adjustments and successful responses to a series of other challenges.

After his successful three-year canvass of the State, it is not surprising that Samuel Wait was elected principal of the new institution. Sixteen students registered February 3, 1834, and before the end of the year seventy-two had enrolled. The Baptists, who had regarded the manual labor principle as a partial means of financing the institution, abandoned the idea after five years, and the school was rechartered in 1839 as Wake Forest College.

President Wait's home was the farmhouse on the Jones plantation which is now preserved as an historical museum in the town of Wake Forest. Students lived in what had been slave quarters and classes were conducted in the carriage house. In 1835 construction on the first brick building was begun by Captain John Berry, a prominent builder of that period, who agreed to accept payment in notes, due in three annual installments. Because of the financial panic of 1837, the final payment was not made until 1850. The economic crisis had such an adverse effect that financial support of the College and student enrollment steadily declined; only a loan of $10,000 from the State Literary Fund in 1841 prevented bankruptcy. During these years of arduous struggle to keep the College alive, President Wait exhausted his physical strength and contracted an illness which compelled him to resign the presidency in 1845.

Dr. William Hooper succeeded President Wait and the prospects of the College became brighter. Hooper, a grandson of William Hooper, one of North Carolina's three signers of the Declaration of Independence, had received his education at the University of North Carolina. As a native North Carolinian and with family connection extending over several generations, he was able to mobilize public opinion in support of the College. His leadership during his brief tenure generated such enthusiasm in support of education that a successful campaign for funds retired the debt for the College buildings in 1850.

After Hooper's resignation, the Trustees elected to the presidency Professor John B. White of the Mathematics Department, a graduate of Brown University. Since the physical facilities were now free of mortgages, fund-raising efforts during President White's administration could be concentrated on increasing the endowment. A campaign begun in 1862 had as its goal increasing the endowment by $50,000. The Trustees placed in charge of this campaign Washington Manly Wingate, a graduate of the Class of 1849; and with the vigor of youth and a devotion to his alma mater almost unparalleled, he raised within a year and a half approximately $33,000.

President White was an able man, but the temper of the times was unsuited to leadership by a Northerner. President White resigned in 1854, and the Trustees chose as his successor Washington Manly Wingate, then twenty-six years old and the first alumnus to serve as President. Under his vigorous leadership which spanned nearly three tumultuous decades, the quality of students improved, and new faculty members were added. The preparatory department was discontinued in 1860. During the first- eight years of Wingate's administration, sixty-six students graduated, more than half of the total graduated during the first twenty-three years of the existence of the College. In 1857 President Wingate launched a campaign to raise an additional endowment of $50,000. Over one-half of the amount was raised in a single evening during the 1857 meeting of the Convention.

This period of growth and expansion was cut short by the division of the Union into two separate countries in 1861. The Conscription Act of 1863 did not exempt students, and for three years during the Civil War, the College suspended operations. The buildings were used briefly for a girls' school, but after 1863 the Confederate Government used the facilities as a military hospital.


POST-WAR RE-BIRTH

Following Sherman's march through the South and Lee's surrender at Appomatox, a peace of desolation pervaded the South. Supporters of Wake Forest surveyed what remained after the cessation of hostilities: college buildings, now leaky and in a poor state of repair, approximately $11,700 from its pre-war endowment of $100,000, its former President and faculty, and a loyal group of Trustees. There was also something else -- an indomitable spirit of determination that Wake Forest College should emerge from the wreck of war and fulfill its mission.

The needs of the College were great and the financial prospects poor, yet in November, 1865, barely six months after the end of the war, nine members of the Board of Trustees acting with unwarranted courage authorized the resumption of classes at the College. Dr. Wingate was persuaded to resume the Presidency, and on January 15, 1866, fifty-one students enrolled. The enrollment gradually increased as the region and the economy slowly recovered during the Reconstruction Era.

President Wingate realized that the people of North Carolina must be awakened to the great need for education in the New South and that they must be persuaded that Wake Forest College could effectively serve their needs. To launch this educational campaign, a Baptist sponsored state-wide educational convention was held in Raleigh, but before funds could be collected, the financial crisis of 1873 ended all immediate hope for endowment.

The failure of the 1873-74 fund-raising campaign placed the College in a precarious position. The triple encumbrances of war, reconstruction, and the financial panic of 1873 made it evident that little money could be raised in North Carolina. The Committee on Endowment of the Board of Trustees appointed James S. Purefoy, a local merchant and Baptist minister, agent to solicit funds in the Northern states for continued operation of the College. While serving as Treasurer of the Board before the war, he had salvaged $11,700 from the pre-war endowment of $100,000 by persuading the Trustees to invest half of the endowment in state bonds. He was now asked, at the age of sixty-one, to undertake still another mission for the College. After two years of unrelenting and often discouraging labor, without remuneration, he placed in the hands of the Trustees the sum of $9,200.

It was also in these bleak days of financial uncertainty that a Wake Forest student, James W. Denmark, proposed and founded the first college student loan fund in the United States. Denmark, a Confederate veteran, had worked six years to accumulate enough money for his college expenses. Soon after entering Wake Forest in 1871, he realized that many students had the same great financial need. From his meager funds, he spent five dollars for post cards and wrote to the college presidents across :the country asking how their loan funds were organized. He found, surprisingly, that the colleges had no loan funds. He enlisted the support of faculty and students at Wake Forest and in 1877 persuaded the Legislature to charter the North Carolina Baptist Student Loan Fund. Chartered with a capital of $25,000, it was actually begun with a paid-in capital of $150. Now known as the James W. Denmark Loan Fund, and the oldest college student loan fund in the United States, it has assets of $325,000 and continues to serve the needs of students according to the purposes of its founder.

At the close of President Wingate's second administration in 1879, the College had been successfully revived; the endowment had been increased from approximately $11,000 to $40,000; a new library building had been constructed, and another building, Wingate Hall, was under construction. Perhaps the greatest service President Wingate rendered was bringing to the College with unerring good judgment, a faculty composed of men who were highly qualified as scholars and who served the College with ability, distinction, and dedication over a long period of years. Among these were Professors William G. Simmons, 1855-88; William Royall, 1859-70, 1880-92; William Bailey Royall, 1866-1928; Luther Rice Mills, 1867-1907; and Charles Elisha Taylor, 1870-1915, who served as President of the College, 1884-1905. Two other scholars who became tutors or adjunct professors in the last year of President Wingate's administration were also destined to play important roles in the life of the College: Needham Y. Gulley, who established the School of Law in 1894 and served as its first Dean for thirty-six years, and William Louis Poteat, who served the College for fifty years, twenty-two of them as President.

The administration of President Thomas Henderson Pritchard, which followed that of President Wingate, was brief, only three years, and served principally to further President Wingate's efforts to persuade the Baptists and North Carolinians generally to improve the deplorable condition of education in the state. Dr. Pritchard, the second alumnus of the College to serve as President, was an eloquent speaker and his prominent leadership among Baptists in the state succeeded in increasing the patronage of the College and in improving its image among its constituency.

Dr. Charles Elisha Taylor, whom President Wingate had brought to the faculty in 1880, was elected in 1884 to serve as the sixth president of Wake Forest. While serving as professor Dr. Taylor of Moral Philosophy in 1882, he had proposed to the Board of Trustees a plan to increase the endowment from $53,000 to $100,000. He recommended a short one-year campaign and the solicitation of funds from a few wealthy men rather than the usual protracted campaign among Baptists generally who had little money to contribute.

In the course of his efforts to increase the endowment, Professor Taylor succeeded in enlisting the support of Jabez A. Bostwick of New York City whose contributions during his lifetime and later in his will, probated in 1923, established Wake Forest as a privately endowed college. The income from the $1,500,000 gift of stock in the Standard Oil Company remains one of the larger items in the University's endowment.

President Taylor's administration, 1884-1905, also brought enrichment of the academic program in a variety of ways. Academic departments were increased from eight to thirteen and the size of the faculty more than doubled. Two new schools were added: the School of Law in 1894 and the School of Medicine in 1902. Progress in other areas included the addition of three buildings, a science laboratory, a general classroom building and a new gymnasium. The campus was landscaped, and with the able assistance of President Taylor's co-worker, "Doctor" Tom Jeffries, over 400 trees were planted, making Magnolia grandiflora almost synonymous with the Wake Forest campus.

President Taylor was succeeded by Dr. William Louis Poteat of the Department of Biology. Affectionately known as "Dr. Billy" to a host of students during his twenty-two year administration, he continued to promote the general growth of all areas of the College. Special emphasis was placed on development in the area of sciences, reflecting in part the interests of the President and also in part the need to enrich the premedical training required by the new School of Medicine.

As student enrollment increased from 313 in 1905 to 742 in 1927, there was a corresponding increase in the size of the faculty. Increased registration in religion, English, Dr. Poteateducation, and social sciences required more administrative direction, and a Dean and a Registrar as well as Librarians were employed. Expansion of physical facilities included science laboratories, two new dormitories, an athletic field, a heating plant and an infirmary. Wake Forest, joining the trend of the other colleges in the state, gave more attention to sports and achieved an envied reputation in baseball and football.

Notable also during President Poteat's administration was the continued growth of the endowment. Through the efforts of Professor John B. Carlyle $117,000 was added, one-fourth of which was contributed by the General Education Board of New York. Later a gift of $100,000 in Duke Power Company stock was received from Benjamin N. Duke, and $458,000 from the Southern Baptist Convention.

Beyond these significant material advances, President Poteat brought another distinction in the form of state and national recognition. A devout Christian, an eloquent speaker, an accomplished scholar, he became a state-wide leader in education and probably the foremost Baptist layman in the state. As a distinguished scientist he was among the first to introduce the theory of evolution to his biology classes. His Christian commitment in his personal and public life enabled him to successfully defend his views on evolution before the Baptist State Convention in 1924. This was considered a major victory for academic freedom and attracted national attention. Due in part to his influence and that of the Wake Forest alumni who supported his view, tile Legislature of North Carolina did not follow other Southern states in the passage of anti-evolution laws in the 1920's.

During the administration of Dr. Francis Pendleton Gaines, 1927-1930, the academic program was strengthened.

In 1930 the Trustees selected Dr. Thurman D. Kitchin, Dean of the Medical School, to fill the presidency. Dr. Kitchin was a member of a family prominent in state and national affairs. One brother, William W. Kitchin, had served as Governor of North Carolina, and another, Claude Kitchin, had served as Majority Leader in Congress. Dr. Kitchin's twenty-year administration, 1930-50, was one of progress in spite of many obstacles depression, destructive campus fires, one of which destroyed venerable Wait Hall, and the disruption caused by World War II which depleted the campus of students.

Notable accomplishments during this period were the approval of the School of Law by the American Bar Association in 1936, and the removal of the School of Medicine to Winston-Salem in 1941 where it became a four-year School of Medicine in association with the North Carolina Baptist Hospital. It was named the Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest College in honor of the benefactor who made this expansion possible.

World War II brought other changes. Although the College was able to remain open, the enrollment dropped to 474 in 1942. The College met this crisis by modifying its century old admissions policy and becoming a coeducational institution in 1942. To further fill the void, it leased its facilities to the Army Finance School. In the post-war period, enrollment mushroomed with the return of the veterans and reached a peak of 1,762 students in 1949.

THE DAWN OF A NEW ERA

Just prior to the beginning of World War II a major $7,000,000 capital expansion campaign for buildings and endowment had been launched by President Kitchin. The war forced the postponement of any construction but out of the campaign came a proposal which offered an opportunity for yet another re-birth. The Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation proposed that up to $350,000 a year of the income from the Foundation be given in perpetuity to Wake Forest College, provided the entire College was relocated in Winston-Salem, and with the stipulation that other friends of the College provide a campus site and buildings. In 1946 the Board of Trustees, the Convention, which had originally founded Wake Forest, and the Baptist constituency of the State accepted this proposal.

To remove a century old College from its essentially rural setting 110 miles to a new campus in an urban environment would require leadership of great vision, determination and youthful vigor. President Kitchin had led the College through twenty eventful years embracing depression, fires, and World War II. Upon reaching his sixty-fifth birthday, he resigned. To succeed him and to organize the removal to Winston-Salem, the Trustees in 1950 elected to the presidency Dr. Harold Wayland Tribble, then President of Andover-Newton Theological Seminary.

President Tribble immediately began to mobilize the alumni, friends of the College, and the Baptist State Convention in support of the great transition. The State Convention adopted a nine-year program of increased annual support to all the Baptist Colleges in the state and pledged funds for the building of Wait Chapel on the new campus.

The Reynolds Foundation agreed to set aside for buildings the $350,000 annual support until the removal actually occurred, and from these funds the Z. Smith Reynolds Library was constructed. The Foundation also offered a $3,000,000 challenge gift, from which Reynolda Hall was constructed. The citizens of Winston-Salem and Forsyth County contributed the cost of construction of a science building, and William Neal Reynolds contributed $1,000,000 for a gymnasium.

A three hundred and twenty acre campus site was provided through the generosity of the late Charles H. and Mary Reynolds Babcock. Ground-breaking ceremonies were held on October 15, 1951, and a crowd of more than 20,000 watched President Harry S. Truman lift the first shovel of dirt to begin construction on the new campus. Between 1952 and 1956 fourteen buildings were erected on the campus and the actual removal of the College to its new home was accomplished in time for the opening of the summer session in 1956.

In the next eleven years of President Tribble's administration, the College experienced many changes. It had revised its curriculum as a prelude to the removal to the new campus, offering a more flexible program to students. The number of students increased to 3,022, and the size of the faculty expanded rapidly, reducing the teacher-student ratio to fourteen to one.

The campus was further expanded with the erection of a new Life Sciences building in 1961, a new women's dormitory in 1962, and a new general classroom building in 1963; and work was begun on a new 31,000 seat stadium, which was completed in 1968.

Additional resources also came to the College in its new home. In 1954 just prior to the move, the will of Colonel George Foster Hankins provided over $1,000,000 to he used for scholarships. In 1956 the Ford Foundation contributed $680,000 to the endowment of the School of Arts and Sciences and $1,600,000 to the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. At the time of the removal of the College, the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation increased its annual support from $350,000 to $500,000. After the completion of a challenge gift of $3,000,000 offered in 1965, the Foundation raised its annual contribution to $620,000.

The holdings of the University's libraries more than tripled and the library was awarded the income from an endowment fund of about $4,500,000 contributed by the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation and Mrs. Nancy Reynolds.

Graduate work, first offered in 1866, but suspended during the removal program, was resumed in 1961 when the Trustees established the Division of Graduate Studies. In 1967, recognizing the augmented resources of the College and the fact that in all except name it was a university rather than a college, the Trustees officially changed the name to Wake Forest University. The Division of Graduate Studies became the Wake Forest University Graduate School. The name Wake Forest College was retained as the designation for the undergraduate School of Arts and Sciences.

In 1967, after seventeen years of strenuous effort, President Tribble retired, leaving as his lasting memorial the removal of the College from Wake Forest to Winston-Salem and its changed status from College to University, with enhanced resources.

As his successor the Trustees chose Dr. James Ralph Scales, former President of Oklahoma Baptist University and former Dean of Arts and Sciences, Oklahoma State University. Since 1967 during the six years of his administration, there have been important new developments. The Guy T. and Clara H. Carswell Scholarship Fund, valued at $1,600,000, was established to undergird the undergraduate School of Arts and Sciences. The School of Business Administration was converted into a Graduate School of Management in 1969 and named in honor of Charles H. Babcock, one of the principal benefactors of the University. Through the generosity of the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation and Mrs. Nancy Susan Reynolds, a new building was constructed to house this School. A subsequent gift of $2,000,000 was received from the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation to be used as endowment.

In 1971 the School of Law added a $500,000 wing which allowed for an increase in enrollment and faculty. The Bowman Gray School of Medicine-Baptist Hospital complex also completed a $30,000,000 expansion program. In addition, a new women's dormitory housing approximately 300 undergraduates was completed on the Reynolda campus.

Complementing the material growth, the University re-examined its program and goals and adopted a number of changes in its curriculum. In 1971 it adopted a new calendar and the 4-1-4 curriculum and a cooperative exchange of courses with Salem College; and established a Wake Forest University Overseas Center in Venice, Italy, and in Dijon, France.

As a mark of its increased stature, the Kenan Foundation in 1970 awarded a grant of $500,000 for the establishment of a Kenan Professorship.

In retrospect, the University has had a long, arduous and fruitful history. With the pains of removal and rebirth behind it, with a modern and well-equipped campus and greatly enhanced resources, and a youthful administration and faculty, it stands on the threshold of a new era. Relocation has brought new facilities and new opportunities but the ideals remain un-changed and the University continues to function as its founders envisioned, Pro Humanitate.

ENDOWMENT, TRUST FUNDS AND FOUNDATIONS

In 1865 the endowment fund of Wake Forest University was $11,700, the remnant from the wreck of war. Under the terms of the will of Mr. Jabez A. Bostwick, the endowment was increased, in 1923, by stock valued at about 1,500,000. On August 3, 1939, the resources of the Bowman Gray Foundation were awarded to Wake Forest College, to be used exclusively by the School of Medicine.

Under the terms of the will of Colonel George Foster Hankins of Lexington, North Carolina, who died in 1954, the George Foster Hankins Foundation was established, the income to be used for scholarships. The assets of the Foundation on June 30, 1973, were approximately $1,750,000.

The Ford Foundation in 1956 made two gifts to the endowment of the College, the sum of $680,500 for the School of Arts and Sciences and $1,600,000 for the Bowman Gray School of Medicine.

The Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation made gifts, in 1958 and 1962, of the Reynolda Gardens and an endowment with the total value of approximately $1,500,000. In 1965 the College received an additional gift of land on which a plant of the Western Electric Company is located. This gift, valued at $3,500,000 is to be used for the support of the Library and the Chair of Botany. In December, 1969, an endowment in the amount of $2,300,000 was received from the Foundation for the use and benefit of the Babcock Graduate School of Management:

In 1965, 1966, and 1967 a gift totaling $1,000,000, the income from which is to be used to support the Library, was received from Mrs. Nancy Reynolds.

From the estate of the late Guy T. Carswell, who died in 1966, the University received the Guy T. and Clara H. Carswell Scholarship Fund. Investments in this fund were approximately $2,400,000 at June 30, 1973.

On June 30, 1973, all endowment funds controlled by the University had a book value of $47,962,000 and market value of $48,511,000.

In addition to the endowment funds controlled by the Trustees, various trust funds are held by banks for the benefit of the University. Among these are the James A. Gray Trust Fund, the Mary K. Fassett Trust Fund, the Lucy Teague Fassett Memorial Trust Fund, and the Nathalie H. Bernard Fund.

The Trustees of the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation, Inc. and The Trustees of Wake Forest College entered into a con-tract on November 16, 1916, whereby the Foundation made available to the College income of the Foundation up to $350,000 per year in perpetuity, this sum being increased to $500,000 in 1955. In 1965, the Foundation announced a match-ing grant of $3,000,000 for a period of four years. Upon reaching this goal, the Foundation increased the annual grant of $620,000 in 1968. In 1972, they announced an additional grant of $200,000 per year for five years.

BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS

Wake Forest University is situated on approximately 320 acres of land, and the physical plant consists of 30 buildings, including 12 apartment buildings for faculty and married stu-dents. The property was given to the University by the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation and Mr. Charles H. Babcock, and construction of the new campus was begun in 1952. It was occupied for the first time during the 1956 summer session. The buildings are of modified Georgian architecture and con-structed of Old Virginia brick trimmed in granite and limestone. Situated on beautifully landscaped hills, the campus is one of the most attractive in the South.

The Reynolda Gardens annex, consisting of 148 acres and including Reynolda Woods, Reynolda Village, and Reynolda Gardens, is adjacent to the campus on the south. This tract includes a formal garden, greenhouses, parking areas, and a wooded area with trails. The formal garden features one of the first collections of Japanese cherry trees in the United States. This area of natural beauty was a gift to the College from the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation through transfers made in 1958, 1961, and 1963.

ACADEMIC BUILDINGS

Wait Chapel. Named in memory of the first President of Wake Forest College, Wait Chapel, with an auditorium which seats twenty-three hundred, contains Davis Chapel, which seats 150 and is used for special services. Wingate Hall, attached to Wait Chapel, provides classroom space for the Departments of Music and Religion. Wingate Hall is named in honor of Washington Manly Wingate, President of Wake Forest College, 1854-1879.

Reynolda Hall. This building serves both as an administration building and a student center. Food services are centralized in Reynolda Hall and consist of a cafeteria, snack shop, banquet room, the Magnolia Room, and other smaller dining rooms. The University Computer Center is located in the basement.

The Z. Smith Reynolds Library. Situated at the center of the academic campus, this building contains space for eight tiers of book stacks, with a capacity of about one million volumes. Surrounding the book stacks are four floors of rooms for reading, reference, and various other uses of a modern library. The University Theatre is located on the top level of the Library.

Salem Hall. Directly west of the Library, this three-story building contains laboratories, classrooms, and offices for the Departments of Chemistry and Physics.

Winston Hall. Located just west of Salem Hall, this building was occupied in September 1961. It provides instructional and office space for the Departments of Biology and Psychology.

The W. N. Reynolds Gymnasium. Located just east of Reynolda Hall, this building is equipped with classrooms for instruction in physical education, courts for basketball and other indoor sports, a swimming pool and offices for the Department of Physical Education and the Department of Athletics. Surrounding the Gymnasium are sports fields and courts for tennis, track, soccer, football, and field hockey. Memorial Coliseum is used for intercollegiate basketball games. The Department of Military Science is also housed in this building.

Harold W. Tribble Hall. This building accommodates the social sciences and the humanities and contains instructional and office space, a small projection theatre, the philosophy library, a curriculum materials center, the Honors seminar room, and a main lecture room which seats 200.

Law Building. This four-story structure contains classrooms, offices, a moot court, an assembly room, a library, faculty and student lounges, and other specific use rooms. An expansion of the building in 1972 provided additional classrooms, ounces, and library space.

Charles H. Babcock Building. Occupied in September, 1969, this building contains offices and classrooms for the Department of Business and Accountancy, the Department of Mathematics and the Babcock Graduate School of Management. A variety of instructional spaces are available, including ampitheatres, seminar rooms, library, and computer terminal stations for individual student use. The building was expanded in 1972 to provide new offices, a seminar room, and a reading room for the Department of Mathematics.

LIBRARIES

The several libraries of the University contain a total of 519,715 volumes. The Z. Smith Reynolds Library holds the main collection of 399,228 volumes of general and diversified research character. The other libraries represent, in volume holdings as follows, the respective areas they serve: the Library of the School of Law, 49,227; that of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 66,118; and that of the Charles H. Babcock Graduate School of Management, recently established in 1970, 5,142. A rapidly growing microtext collection is maintained, principally in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library. There are available 13,806 reels of microfilm, containing files of local, national, and foreign newspapers; and 163,847 pieces of other microforms, which include such substantial items as the British Parliamentary Papers, the Human Relations Area File, and the Encyclopaedia Britannica "Library of American Civilization" on ultrafiche.

The Z. Smith Reynolds Library provides excellent support for a liberal arts curriculum and a somewhat limited, although expanding, graduate program. In certain areas special collecting has been undertaken. For instance, moderate emphasis has been placed on North Carolina and Southeastern materials; the Ethel Taylor Crittenden Collection in Baptist History has acquired more than 7,500 items which include files of Baptist serials and individual church records; and the works of selected late nineteenth and early twentieth century authors, together with appropriate critical studies, are being collected in the Rare Book Rooms.

An open-stack policy enables users to consult books directly at the shelves. With a few exceptions in special collections, the books are classified according to the Library of Congress schedules. Current issues and bound volumes of periodicals in chemistry and physics are shelved in Salem Hall for convenience in laboratory research.

In addition to regular University appropriations, the Z. Smith Reynolds Library receives the income from an endowment fund of about $4,500,000, the result of two major gifts: a donation of assets worth $3,500,000 by the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation; and a gift of $1,000,000 made in 1967 by Mrs. Nancy Reynolds. This income is applied principally to the purchase of books necessary for graduate studies, although portions have been used for much needed changes and additions in the Library building.

Other gifts have enriched the University library collections. Mr. Tracy McGregor provided a collection of valuable titles on the colonial and early national periods of American history. To acquire the important editions of Edmund Spenser and related background material, a contribution was made by Dr. Charles G. Smith in honor of his wife, Cornelia Marschall Smith. Dr. Herman Harrell Horne established a fund for the purchase of titles of a general nature. A collection in music was presented to the Library by Dr. and Mrs. Stringham of Chapel Hill. It is known as the Edwin John Stringham Collection in Music and Allied Subjects.

Dr. Charles Lee Smith of Raleigh bequeathed to the University his personal library of about 7,000 volumes, rich in first editions, while a bequest from his brother, Oscar T. Smith of Baltimore, affords additional purchases of similar volumes.

The Paschal Collection was established Christmas, 1950 by Dr. George W. Paschal, Jr., Raleigh surgeon, in recognition of the interest in the Library manifested by his father, George Washington Paschal, and also in memory of his father's twin brother, Robert Lee Paschal. The Collection is regularly enlarged and, although heterogeneous in nature, primarily contains material relating to the humanities. The aim of the founder of the Collection is to add to the working efficiency of the Library. While this Collection is principally supported by the donor, it has also received and welcomes contributions from interested friends. A special bookplate is used for items acquired for the Collection.

In 1970 the acquisition of an important Mark Twain collection was made possible through the generosity of Mrs. Nancy Reynolds. The collection contains many variant editions of his works, with critical material and memorabilia. From the estate of Judge R. Hunt Parker the Library received a well-selected collection of more than 3,000 volumes.

The Library of the School of Law contains 49,227 volumes, including the reports, digests, and statutes required by the American Association of Law Schools, together with the leading periodicals, encyclopedias, and textbooks.

Library facilities at the Bowman Gray School of Medicine include 66,118 volumes, furnishing the periodicals texts, and monographs essential to instruction and research in medical theory and practice.

The Charles H. Babcock Graduate School of Management is developing a library of basic materials for its graduate program Still modest in size because of its recent origin, now containing 5,1A'2 volumes, the library is steadily moving forward toward an adequate collection.

The Spilman Philosophy Seminar houses carefully selected books for the use of advanced students in philosophy. Although not supported by library funds, but by an endowment given by Dr. B. W. Spilman and by the A. C. Reid Philosophy Fund, it forms a valuable part of the book resources of the University

The Library of the Military Science Department, located in the Gymnasium, has available for student use over 2,000 books and periodicals. In addition to major military conflicts involving the United States, the material covers such subjects as communism, the "Cold War," counterinsurgency, anti-guerrilla warfare, foreign policy, nuclear warfare, and space activities.

ART COLLECTION

The T. J. Simmons Collection, presented to the College by the late Dr. Thomas Jackson Simmons of Gainesville, Gal, was formally opened to the public on June 2, 1941. It includes about sixty paintings, thirty-five etchings and lithographs, five pieces of sculpture, and several other art objects.

The collection was enriched in 1957 by three paintings from the Hammer Galleries given by Mr. Arnold Kirkeby, and in 1960 by two paintings given by Mr. Clark Hartwell and three by Mrs. April Ruth Akston. Nearly all of the paintings are hung in public areas of various buildings on the campus.

PURPOSES AND OBJECTIVES

As an institution founded by the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, Wake Forest University seeks to shape its goals, policies, and practices by Christian ideals. It seeks to help its students become mature, well-informed and responsible persons. It seeks to introduce its students to the cultural heritage of our times, through a broad study of the humanities, the natural and social sciences and mathematics, and through a concentration in at least one academic discipline. It seeks to develop in its students the ability to think honestly and clearly, to use the English language correctly, and to use at least one foreign language effectively. It seeks to assist its students in building a system of values which takes full account of the things of the spirit as well as things material that they may become constructive and useful members of society. Finally, it seeks to aid its students in achieving for themselves a vital and relevant faith. These purposes underlie the total academic program of the University. Through them the University seeks to prepare its students for careers in teaching, the ministry, law, medicine, business, research, and other professions.

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